Fruit trees: how to recognize buds

In the fruit trees each budding gem can be destined to become a wood gem, a flower or a mixed gem. The wood buds are recognizable by the pointed shape and give rise to twigs exclusively from leaves. The flower buds are instead squat, round, larger than the previous ones and give rise to twigs with leaves and flowers that will bear the fruits. Mixed buds, as the word implies, have a shape halfway between the two and can produce both flowering and woody branches.

Recognize the gems of the fruit trees it is important because during pruning the fruit bearing flower buds will be safeguarded. On apple and pear trees, flower buds grow on three different branch types:

  • on mixed branches, more or less long, which develop uniformly every year throughout the crown and which bear both flowering and fruiting buds;
  • on the tip of the pins, short twigs of no more than 30 centimeters, slender and very flexible, which over their entire length carry only wood buds;
  • on the lamburde, short twigs with a deformed appearance, which in the first three years generate only wood buds with a characteristic crown of leaves; later the bud at the tip becomes mixed and begins to produce flowers as well. In the apple tree there is often the development of several closely spaced lamburde, with a formation that takes the name of chicken leg.

We gave the example of apple and pear trees because these two fruit trees they cannot do without regular pruning since the formation of lamburde and pinindilli, that is of branches destined to bear fruit, depends on the correct shortening of the branches. Plum trees and peach trees also give better results when pruned regularly. Instead apricots, quinces, cherries and figs are pruned more than anything else to keep the hair clean and tidy.

On the fruit trees a winter pruning and a summer pruning are distinguished. A third pruning, called training, is carried out in the first years after planting and is used to give the foliage the chosen shape (there are various possibilities) for productive or aesthetic purposes.

There winter pruning of fruit trees it is carried out at the end of winter in order to eliminate dry or thin and fragile branches, or those thick and crossed to keep the foliage well ventilated. In this phase the formation of fruit buds is stimulated (which is why it is important to know how to recognize them) optimizing production and favoring the development of new branches,

There summer pruning of fruit trees it is preferable to winter when you are a beginner. During the growing season it is in fact easier to identify the buds and make the correct cut, minimizing the possibility of errors. Also considered summer pruning interventions are suckling (elimination of suckers at the base of the trunk), spemminellatura (elimination of vertical jets between the trunk and main branches) and thinning of the fruits: the smallest and poorly positioned fruit are removed to increase quality and size of those that remain.

Pruning tools

For a correct pruning operation you need a good pair of shears (small branches), a lopper (medium branches) and a sharp hacksaw or chainsaw (large branches). If the 'wound' is large (large branches) it is advisable to treat it with healing mastic. You can also buy everything online, with home delivery.

Here you will find a good pair of pruning shears

Here some battery-powered shears

Here a robust professional lopper

Here a sturdy electric chainsaw with a 35 cm bar

Here the healing mastic

Here some protective gloves for pruning

Video: Your Fruit Trees Will Produce 5 times More Fruits if You Do This (January 2022).